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小悅悅案誰負第一主要責任?

湯本

筆者在鳳凰衛視《新聞近日談》用16分鐘時間,和美女主播趙情晴探討,廣東佛山小悅悅被車碾重傷而亡的案件。我提出瞭如下看法:

首先,小悅悅案第一責任人是她的父母。其次,美國法律對於孩子監護人十分嚴格。其三,中國社會泛道德化不利於兒童保護。關愛和精心照看自己孩子的父母不會讓孩子在沒有照看的情況“自由活動”兩個小時。自己也不去尋找,監護人的監護責任。孩子是你自己的,但是你生活在社會中,社會把監護權交給你,你就必須負責,中國傳統和歷史文化,以及民族精神不足中,常常有生而不養,養而不教,教而不嚴等等問題。

關於我的這一觀點的詳細論述,可在鳳凰網搜索:湯本《新聞今日談》小悅悅父母是第一責任人。

我也認為:廣東省委書記汪洋認為,“我們每一個人都要用'良知的尖刀'來深刻解剖自身存在的醜陋,提高社會道德素質,很好,這沒有錯,但是,他的忽略是,在這個問題上,領導人不能跟著群眾走,成為群眾的尾巴,缺乏司法精神,缺乏國際視野,對於普通幹部和公務員來說,或許可以理解,但是對於一個經濟大省,一個改革大省的首要領導人,中共中央政治局的委員,不能不說是一種遺憾。,

避免泛道德化劫持媒體和民眾的指向性輿論,影響正常司法審理。

和我觀點接近的是一位中國大陸學者教育工作者那小兵先生。

他認為:“小悅悅事件裡有想像,有媒體的善意,也有其惡意,有卑鄙小人的作弄,但確實有冷漠的路人,還有許多人希望放大事件的道德推理,而道德推理是不可能靠消防車做暴雨實驗的方式得以證明的。道德推理沒有正當程序,只能靠我們個人把智和善結合得更好一點。然而,把道德當成判斷工具最大的風險是將事情大而化之,最後誰也不用負責任。

如果我們一味相信道德的作用,那麼道德就會成為“不道德”的藉口和工具,這種例子不勝枚舉。江蘇南通那位好心的司機尹紅兵,救了一位倒地的老太太,卻被神智清醒的老太太及家人誣告為肇事者,多虧車上的監控記錄了當時的情景。 200910月天津司機許雲鶴救助一位橫跨馬路護欄而摔倒的老太太,而被其家人告上法庭。小悅悅所在的廣東地區,人人都知道“拋尸攔車“的事情,用屍體栽贓司機搶錢的案子在潮汕公路並非新聞。面對這些案件,每個廣東人都心有戒備,對忽然出現的事故很容易和”陷害“聯繫起來,尤其在黑夜之中孤身一人時更是如此。

顯然道德標準無法通過媒體產生對個人責任的確認,那麼通過法律又會怎樣呢?我們不妨用美國這個法治國家為例分析一下。根據美國國家保險犯罪局的數字,僅僅每年汽車保險詐騙就造成每部汽車保險金200300美元的分攤成本,而這種成本更通過經濟體系轉嫁到每個消費者身上。也就是說美國嚴厲的法律並不能阻擋每年數十億的偽造車禍類的案件發生。比如,筆者認識一位老教授在開車時被另一輛車從右邊碰了一下,起初他並沒在意,但忽然那輛車示意他停車,停下來後走出一個阿美尼亞人,說要交換駕駛資料,並沒有警察到場記錄。結果,沒多久這老教授受到一封律師信,說“車禍中有三個孩子在車中受傷“,指控老教授魯莽開車,讓老教授看瞭如晴天霹靂。好在老教授有買駕駛全套保險,而那二十七萬美金賠償費由保險公司支付。更可悲的案例是,一輛美國公共汽車事故撞到一棵樹,原來上面只有三個人,但申報賠償時竟出現了49位”受傷者“,統統得到了政府賠償。

美國最常見的汽車詐騙案包括了:製造假事故、誇大損傷、自毀自傷,誣陷別人等等。在美國有句常言:“寧救路邊一隻鳥,不救面前一傷者“,這句話得到了美國紅十字會的認可,因為盲目救護往往會造成不可挽回的損傷。按美國紅十字會規定,受過訓練的志願者在施救前必須經過傷者同意(尚清醒者),如果情況緊急可先施救,但必須同時打911電話求救方可免除法律責任。有執照的施救者也不能排除被傷者起訴的可能,但法庭有權給予赦免。而一般路人有權不與任何施救,甚至也沒有呼救的責任。這種情況的產生和美國相關法律有關,一是不可隨意呼叫911急救造成費用,二是不可錯誤施救,否則承擔法律責任,三是美國人不願意捲入官司被迫到法庭做證人耗費時間。您知道要花多少時間才能打通佛山地區110?恐怕沒個幾分鐘不行,每天呼入量竟達上萬呢。

按照美國法律,小悅悅的死亡罪責承擔分配如下:

第一責任:父母失職,沒有看管好孩子,這麼晚還亂跑出門;

第二責任:市政管理失職,沒有安好交通危險路段的照明設備;

第三責任:肇事司機失職,沒有及時發現並求救(但如果不能證明司機當時明知故犯則無法入罪);

第四責任:救人老太魯莽施救,把地上孩子用手拉起,如果傷及腦神經等必須承擔法律責任。

其他各見死不救者受到不呼救的道德譴責,但不須承擔實際法律責任。

美國法律強調父母對照顧未成年孩子的責任,而中國人普遍把受害孩子的父母看成是單純犧牲者,這就是兩種文化的差異表現。

總之,中國目前多數沒有擁有車輛的民眾,對於開車者的不滿,很多卡車者橫衝直撞,開了一部好車,連保安也要替他生活,導致民眾對於車禍問題,特別仇視,因此進行道德的譴責,而缺乏必要的監護權的理解和實施。

希望中國在真正的司法程序和司法精神上,在個人的社會道德和責任的提升上,不斷邁向現代化的方向。

另一篇文章是英文文章,錄下,供各位網友參考:

Baby left in car died of heat stroke

-  jmonk@thestate.com

By JOHN MONK

Nine-month-old Jayden Davis died after being left alone in a closed, sweltering car at the Charbonneau Apartments for some four hours on Father’s Day, Columbia Police Chief Randy Scott said. The child was reportedly left there by his father, whose name had not been released Monday.

Meanwhile, in the wake of his death, some S.C. lawmakers said Monday they will redouble their efforts to pass a bill making that a crime.

“Any living thing in a car with the windows rolled up for more than five or 10 minutes, you are putting them in an oven to bake and suffocate,” said Rep. Chip Limehouse, R-Charleston, a co-sponsor of a bill that would make it a misdemeanor to leave an unattended child in a car. The bill didn’t make it out of the House Judiciary Committee this year and will continue over into next year’s session.

Jayden’s case is still being investigated, and no charges have been brought, Scott said.

Scott estimated the baby was left in the car with the windows rolled up from Sunday morning until afternoon.

“It probably was four hours — could be more, could be a little less,” Scott said.

An autopsy Monday revealed that Jayden died from complications of acute hyperthermia, said Richland County Coroner Gary Watts.

“That’s extreme heat, a heat stroke, when you become so hot there’s no way to relieve the heat, and it causes all kinds of multiple organ failures because there’s no way to dissipate any of the heat,” said Watt

elderly are more susceptible.”

Temperatures in closed cars can rise to well over 120 degrees.

The temperature around noon Sunday in the Columbia area was about 92 under mostly sunny conditions, according to the National Weather Service.

Scott said the father, who had worked a night shift, had dropped the mother off at work Sunday morning. At the time, the baby was in a rear-facing car seat in the back of the car, a 2008 Mercury Milan sedan.

When the father returned, he got out of the car and went into the apartments, leaving the baby in the car, Scott said.

“This is a tragedy this happened on Father’s Day,” he said.

Limehouse said passing the bill “would send an important message to everyone in South Carolina that leaving a child in a car is tantamount to delayed suffocation of that child.”

“This practice can no longer be tolerated.”

South Carolina has no specific laws that make it illegal to leave a young child alone in a car. But 19 states do.

However prosecutors have the ability to bring criminal charges against adults who leave children in cars using general criminal statutes, according to the 5th Circuit Solicitor’s office.

“In some instances where a child died as a result of being left unattended in a vehicle, the appropriate charge may be homicide by child abuse,” a spokeswoman for the office said.

But a specific state law can save lives and serve vital public education purposes, said representatives of two national child safety groups that track unattended child deaths in cars.

“We understand we’re not the ‘parent police,’” said Janette Fennell of KidsAndCars.org, a Kansas-based national group that promotes awareness of the various ways children can die in non-highway car incidents.

Nonetheless, she said, her group promotes laws making it a crime to leave a child unattended in a car. Such laws send clear messages to parents that they can forget a child in a car.

“People need to understand this can happen to anyone,” said Fennell.

Statistics show that many people who leave children to die in cars are responsible adults, she said.

Ironically, she said, an “unintended consequence” of air bags has been to put child safety seats in rear seats, out of the vision and, sometimes, consciousness of parents.

Fennell said her group issues memory safety tips, such as leaving your cell phone or employee badge in the back seat so that a parent always has to check the back seat when leaving the car. “The number one thing we recommend is ‘Look before you lock,’” she said.

A state law also would empower the public to call 911 if they see a child unattended in a car, said Tanya Chin Ross, director of public policy for Safe Kids USA, a District of Columbia-based child safety group.

“If you’re a citizen and you see a child unattended, you know that you can call 911 and it’s the right thing to do,” Ross said.

About 40 children die each year in heat-related deaths around the country after being left unattended in cars.

Limehouse, who has worked on various child safety issues over the years, said he knows some parents’ rights groups might oppose a law making it a crime to leave a child unattended in a car.

But children have rights too, he said. “They have a right to live; they are totally dependent on us. We state legislators need to look out for those who have no clout, for those who are least among us. We don’t need to be in office if we can’t do that.”

Scott urged any member of the public who sees a young child unattended in a car to call 911 immediately.

“We are living in South Carolina in this type of heat and humidity — no one or nothing can be left in a vehicle in this heat,” Scott said. “Even if it’s in the wintertime, you just never want to leave a child unattended in a vehicle.”

 

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